Lab over mitosis. The links are NOT needed. The same information


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Lab over mitosis. The links are NOT needed. The same information can be looked up elsewhere. ATTACHMENT PREVIEW Download attachment Lab13ReportGeneStructure2014(1) (1)(1).docx BIOL1408 Introductory Biology Lab Unit 13. Gene Structure and Function name _____ date _____ Dr. Flo Oxley You have a unique combination of traits that you have inherited from your parents that are a function of the specific genes that they have passed on to you. You inherited a full set of genes from your father and a full set of genes from your mother. We will study in another lab unit how the inheritance of genes works, and in this lab unit we will study how the genes themselves work in expressing a particular trait. In the exercises of this lab unit, you will explore the processes involved in the expression of genes of genes by examining the codes embedded in DNA sequences. You will also use biological databases to identify a gene based on its DNA sequence. Before beginning this exercise, read Chapter 8 in your textbook and answer the background questions below. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: GENE STRUCTURE 1. Genes are lined up on chromosomes, and encode the information required for making proteins in the cell. To understand what proteins and genes are, go to http://bcs.whfreeman.com/sabiologyphys1e/#730906__760339__ to watch the Chapter 8 “Interactive Animated Infographics-Gene and Protein Structure and Function”. (You may need to log in to your account.) After watching the animation, answer the following questions in your own words. a. What are the building block subunits of proteins, and how many different kinds are they? b. What distinguishes one amino acid from another, and what determines how a protein folds to its functional conformation? 2. To understand how transcription and translation work in the expression of genes, go to http://bcs.whfreeman.com/sabiologyphys1e/#730906__760342__ to view the Chapter 8 “Interactive Animated Infographics-A Closer Look at Gene Expression”. (You may need to log in to your account.) After watching the animation, answer the following questions in your own words. a. Where does transcription occur in eukaryotic cells? b. What are two parts of a gene, and what are their functions in the transcription of the gene? c. What is the name of the enzyme responsible for transcribing the gene into mRNA? d. In what direction does the synthesis of mRNA occur: in a 5’ to 3’ direction, or in a 3’ to 5’ direction? e. In what ways are mRNA molecules different from DNA molecules? 3. To understand how transcription and translation work together to express a gene, go to http://bcs.whfreeman.com/sabiologyphys1e/#730906__760341__ to view the Chapter 8 “Interactive Animated Infographics-How Genes Are Expressed.” (You may need to log in to your account.) After watching the animation, answer the following questions in your own words. a. Briefly describe how the correct RNA sequence is “copied” from a DNA sequence in a gene. 1 b. Where does translation of the mRNA message occur in the cell? c. Describe how just 4 different types of nucleotides found in the mRNA sequence can encode all of the 20 amino acids in a protein sequence. 4. To understand how DNA sequencing works, go to: http://www.dnalc.org/resources/animations/cycseq.html to watch the “Cycle Sequencing” animation, and answer the following questions in your own words. a. What 5 components are required for a cycle sequencing reaction? b. Describe what happens in the reaction tube at each of the following temperatures of the thermal cycle: Temperature In the reaction tube: 96o C 50o C 60o C c. In what ways are the cycle sequencing reactions different from the PCR reactions that we studied in an earlier lab exercise this semester? d. What happens when, by chance, a dideoxynucleotide is incorporated in the growing DNA chain? How is it possible to tell which of the 4 dideoxynucleotides was incorporated? e. What is the technique used to separate the different DNA fragments by size? Exercise

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