I need to answer all the questions contained in this document.


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27.50

I need to answer all the questions contained in this document. Thanks ATTACHMENT PREVIEW Download attachment chimpanzees.pdf Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionary Discovery by Erica F. Kosal, Biology Department, North Carolina Wesleyan College Part I—Chimpanzee Behavior Far in the remote western African jungles of Cameroon, Dr. Beatrice Hahn and her team of scientists from the University of Alabama have been examining chimpanzee droppings. Members of the great ape family, chimpanzees typically travel in groups of to animals, forming smaller subgroups to forage during the day and then coming together again to sleep in trees at night. Communities lack a definite leader and are usually split into a number of subgroups, often when the animals go to forage. These subgroups (referred to as “fusion-fission groups”) are temporary and change in composition within a matter of hours or days. Dr. Hahn and her associates are taking advantage of this social structure to collect droppings easily in the mornings at the sleep sites after the chimp troop moves on to continue foraging elsewhere in the forest. Chimpanzees, like humans, are omnivores. The animals typically search for vegetation and berries to consume. At times, they hunt cooperatively with one another to attack and kill monkeys, such as the red colobus monkey. Moreover, chimpanzees have been known to engage in warfare if a neighboring troop enters their territory. Each troop is very close, forming bonds that last a lifetime. Animals groom one another, share food at times, and engage in play. Many members are genetically related to one another. Males seldom or never leave the community into which they are born, and siblings and pairs of male friends often travel together. Females, however, may leave to join another group permanently when in estrus (the time when females are fertile), moving freely between communities because they have not yet given birth, or may return to their original group after becoming pregnant. Membership in the community is typically composed of mothers, their offspring, and several adult males who are typically closely related to one another. There is a loose dominance hierarchy, with both males and females establishing high-ranking positions; however, all adult males rank over all females. Males within the group will sometimes try to take over the top position and, if successful, the defeated male will remain in the group. The dominant male who is in charge of the group overall typically has access to all females during estrus. In addition to grooming one another and sharing food, individuals within the community interact socially in order to win favors with one another. With such interactions come alliances. In some cases, males forming such political alliances with one another will band together in order to overthrow the dominant male and establish a new dominant male from the alliance. “Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionary Discovery” by Erica F. Kosal Page Questions . The social structure and behavior of chimps in their communities or troops suggest many questions. What research questions might Dr. Hahn and her associates ask? . Choose one of the research questions from above and consider it in more detail. Based upon the question, what would be a reasonable hypothesis? . Based upon this hypothesis, what types of data might the scientists collect and for what reasons? How would these data allow Dr. Hahn to test the proposed hypothesis? . Dr. Hahn and her associates are specifically collecting fecal pellets. Why do you think Dr. Hahn is interested in the contents of fecal pellets? Generate a list of the possible “contents” of fecal matter. . How might the social structure of the chimpanzee community influence what is contained in the fecal matter? How might chimp social interactions influence what is contained in the fecal pellets or how they are distributed on the forest floor? “Chimpanzee Droppings Lead Scientists to Evolutionar

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27.50