I just need help completing the long answers not the multiple


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I just need help completing the long answers not the multiple choice in these problem sets. Attachment 1 Attachment 2 Attachment 3 ATTACHMENT PREVIEW Download attachment PracticeQuestionsSet7.pdf Practice Questions Set 7 Cellular Respiration 1. Review the reactions in glycolysis (do not memorize the reactions). Mark the “energy investment phase” and “energy payoff/harvest phase” of glycolysis on the diagram. Where is ATP used? Where is ATP produced? Where is NADH produced? 2. The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidationreduction reaction A) gains electrons and gains energy. B) loses electrons and loses energy. C) gains electrons and loses energy. D) loses electrons and gains energy. Review the principle of Redox. 3. Explain how oxidation of methane is carried out through relative loss of electrons (see figure from textbook). 8-2 p163 Memorize this figure 4. Where in the cell does each of the following take place? Glycolysis, Pyruvate Oxidation, Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport / Oxidative Phosphorylation? 5. Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent? A) electron transport B) glycolysis C) the citric acid cycle D) oxidative phosphorylation E) chemiosmosis 6. Explain your answer to the previous question. 7. The free energy for the oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water is -686 kcal/mole and the free energy for the reduction of NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mole. Why are only two molecules of NADH formed during glycolysis when it appears that as many as a dozen could be formed? Consider what comes out of the reaction as a net product. Where is the rest of the potential energy? 8. Review the structure of pyruvate. Pyruvate has to enter the mitochondria in order to enter the citric acid cycle. Will pyruvate cross the lipid bilayer membrane easily? Explain. Is pyruvate hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Will it cross the lipid bilayer with its hydrophobic interior made of fatty acid tails? Or will it need the help of a transport protein (regardless of whether it’s active or passive transport)? 9. Consider the cotransport proteins involved in bringing Pyruvate into the matrix of the mitochondria. In the absence of oxygen, why won’t pyruvate enter the mitochondria? Consider the proton gradient across the inner membrane, and the role of oxygen in establishing 1 this gradient. Refer to the figure below to answer the following questions. The figure below illustrates some of the steps (reactions) of glycolysis in their proper sequence. Each step is lettered. Use these letters to answer the questions. 10. In which step is an inorganic phosphate added to the reactant? Look for the addition of the phosphate group indicated as a P inside a circle. 11. In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis? Consider what comes out of the reaction as a net product. 12. Review Figure 8.8 in the textbook. Mark the energy investment and energy harvest steps. 13. Review Figure 8.8 in the textbook. Explain why step 6 is a redox reaction. 14. Review Figure 8.8 in the textbook. Explain why steps 7 and 10 are considered substratelevel phosphorylation. What provides the phosphate for synthesis of ATP from ADP? 15. Review the citric acid cycle. How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of glucose? A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 8 E) 10 2 16. In the diagram of the citric acid cycle, circle and identify the step that shows substrate-level phosphorylation. What provides the phosphate for synthesis of ATP from ADP? 17. Review the citric acid cycle. Explain why step 6 is a redox reaction. Gaining or losing hydrogens (not just electrons)… 18. Review the citric acid cycle. Explain why step 8 is a redox reaction. What happens to the hydroxyl group? To NAD+? 19. Review the citric acid cycle. Explain what happens if you add an inhibitor that inhibits malate dehydrogenase. 20. Review the figure detailing electron transport

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