HP 348: Exam 2


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HP 348: Exam 2 Review Sheet Neck and back Describe the anatomical relevance for the following structures: atlas-axis joint, nuchal ligament, linea alba, and thoracolumbar fascia. Which movement of the neck, lateral flexion or rotation, is stronger? Use your understanding of the muscles responsible for these movements to defend your answer? Is it possible for you to have the trapezius muscle contract and not have a shrugging motion occur? Explain your answer? Compare and contrast the muscles that flex versus hyperextend the neck. A strength coach is asked to develop a resistance exercise program that will strengthen all major muscles of the neck but also wants to keep the total number of exercises to a minimum. List the fewest number of exercises that would enable them to accomplish this goal. Be sure to indicate the muscles utilized in those exercises. The primary muscles involved with posture of the low back include the iliopsoas, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, and hamstrings.Describe implications for each of the following tests: a) rounded back sit and reach test, b) sling test, c) straight leg lift test, and d) 90/90 hamstring test. Describe one or two interventions, i.e., stretching or strengthening exercises, to remedy deficiency associated with each of these tests. Describe how you can assess tightness and weakness of the abdominal obliques. Describe one of two interventions, i.e., stretching or strengthening exercises, to remedy deficiency associate with each test. What are the key “stabilizing” muscles for the lumbar region? When designing strength and conditioning programs, how do the parameters (e.g., number of repetitions, etc.) for enhancing muscle stabilizing function differ from the goal of enhancing muscle hypertrophy? Shoulder/Pectoral Girdle What is the kinesiological relevance of the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints? Assuming a normal scapulohumeral ratio is present, if a person abducts their shoulder 180°, how much does glenohumeral range of motion account for this versus range of motion of the scapula? During the first 30° of shoulder abduction, which joint contributes most to this motion? What muscle primary controls this first 30°? Between 30° and 90°, what muscle contributes most? As the shoulder passes 90° abduction, which muscles function to elevate the scapula? If a person has scapular dyskinesis, i.e., change in ratio between glenohumeral and scapular range of motion, how will affect diameter of the subacromial arch? What implications might this have? What athletes are more prone to this? The glenoid cavity surrounds what percentage of the humeral head? What is the function of the glenoid labrum? Which muscles “sit” on the back of the scapula? Recent research suggest that the transverse humeral ligament is more likely a extension of the subscapularis muscle (i.e., the tendon connects on the greater tubercle as opposed to the lesser tubercle- as once believed). Why might this explain why external rotation is what causes a dislocated biceps tendon? What other injury occurs with this? Why is it problematic for overhead pitchers to drop their elbow during a throw (arm abducted below 90 degrees)? What range of motion deficit manifests itself with overhead throwing? What is the peel-back mechanism? Concerning projection of an object such as a baseball, a shot put, or a basketball, why does one select a pushing versus throwing strategy? Which motion favors accuracy? Which motion requires a higher degree of muscle stabilization? What muscle causes clock-wise rotation of the right scapula? What muscle causes counterclockwise rotation? What muscle is linked with causing a rounded shoulder posture? What stretch helps correct it? Describe the movement for isolating the clavicular versus the sternal pectoralis major. Describe the origins and insertions of the latissimus dorsi. What action

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