# 1. What is the G (generation time) for the parrot population? a.

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1. What is the G (generation time) for the parrot population? a. 5.96 b. 9.45 c. 3.77 d. 11.20 2. What is the r-estimate (intrinsic rate of increase) for the parrot population? a. 0.9956 b. 0.1598 c. 0.3467 d. 0.2081 3. What is the annual maximum production (msy) of female parrots from the entire forest? a. 92 b. 100 c. 79 d. 89 4. What is the total annual maximum production (msy) of parrots (males and females) from the entire forest? a. 159 b. 180 c. 200 d. 170 5. What is the R0 (net reproductive rate) for the palm population? a. 47.30 b. 51.23 c. 49.46 d. 55.67 6. What is the K (carrying capacity) of the palm population? a. 500,000 b. 1,000,000 c. 10,000 d. 2,000,000 7. What is the total annual maximum production (msy) of palms from the forest? a. 100807 b. 99898 c. 100700 d. 1005012 8. If the palm harvest is set at its maximum sustainable yield (msy), how many parrots will be killed? a. 150 b. 400 c. 300 d. 200 ATTACHMENT PREVIEW Download attachment Sustainable yield parrots and palms assignment (4).docx Parrots and Palms: Estimating the vital statistics of populations to determine best management strategies and sustainable harvest levels James P. Gibbs, SUNY-ESF OBJECTIVES To determine a population’s vital statistics from a set of field observations and to use these statistics to make informed decisions about ways to manage the population. PROCEDURES Debates over conservation issues often focus on population management issues. These issues may be how to reverse declines in endangered species or how best to harvest in a sustainable fashion populations of abundant species. Any population undergoes changes through time that are determined by interactions between agespecific mortality and fecundity rates and the numbers of individuals of different ages. A first step toward understanding these processes in a population for species in which individuals can be accurately aged is to use life table analysis to calculate the population’s vital statistics. Many insights into the population’s behavior, and into management options for that population, can subsequently be obtained. This exercise aims to provide you with an introduction to applied demographic analysis. We examine a scenario involving parrots and harvesting of the trees they require for nesting. Our objectives are: (1) evaluate different strategies for sustainable harvesting of parrots for the pet trade, and (2) balance sustained yield for trees and parrots simultaneously. The exercise is intended to provide you with first hand experience analyzing the type of population data typically gathered by field biologists and to do so within a realistic context. That context is one in which conservation biologists are struggling to find a balance between parrot conservation and harvest for the pet trade as well as timber harvest and the incidental loss of nesting trees for the parrots. BACKGROUND This scenario is contrived but matches closely many details of real parrot populations as well as situations affecting parrot conservation, that is, harvest for the pet trade and loss of vital nest trees due to timber harvest. Consider a hypothetical species of small parrot that matures at age three and then breeds at a modest level (two or three chicks per year) for approximately three years. The parrot is much sought after for sale in the pet trade. Adults can be harvested directly through netting outside the nesting season or nestlings can be removed from nest trees and reared by hand. These parrots only nest in holes in a particular species of palm that is sought after by humans as a source of 1 building material and thatch. Parrot nests are fairly inconspicuous and the harvesting of palms is done without knowledge of where the parrots nest. It also occurs during the dry season, which happens to be the nesting season of the parrots. Thus some palms felled incidentally kill young parrots in nests as well as the attending female. We are concerned with a 10,000 km2 community forest. The